Sound Exposure Experiments

These are scientific experiments to test the response of animals to human-caused sounds Behavioural response studies (BRSs) are experiments aimed at directly quantifying the relationship between potential anthropogenic disturbances and their effect on specific marine mammals. The US Navy is making a substantial investment in BRS studies, aimed at understanding the effect of active sonar on species of concern. Studying these species in ecologically valid settings often requires field experiments. BRS studies are difficult and expensive to conduct, and so sample sizes are necessarily small. Traditional statistical methods for analysis, based on null models and hypothesis testing, do not make best use of the available data, and make it hard to represent accurately the complexity of BRS experimental protocols. We therefore have been developing and implementing innovative statistical methodologies for the analysis of behavioural response study data.


Related Publications

Antunes, A., Kvadsheim, P.H., Lam, F.P.A., Tyack, P.L., Thomas, L., Wensveen P.J. & Miller. P.J.O. (2014) High thresholds for avoidance of sonar by free-ranging long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 83(1), 165-180.

Curé, C., Doksaeter-Sivle, L., Visser, F., Wensveen, P.J., Isojunno, S., Harris, C.M., Kvadsheim, P., Lam, F.P.A. & Miller, P.J.O. (2015) Predator sound playbacks reveal strong avoidance responses in a fight strategist baleen whale. Marine Ecology Progress Series 526, 267-282.

DeRuiter, S.L., Southall, B.L., Calambokidis, J., Zimmer, W.M.X., Sadykova, D., Falcone, E.A., Friedlaender, A.S., Joseph, J.E., Moretti, D., Schorr, G.S., Thomas, L. & Tyack, P.L. (2013) First direct measurements of behavioral responses by Cuvier's beaked whales to mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar. Biology Letters, 9, 20130223.

DeRuiter, S.L., Langrock, R., Skirbutas, T., Friedlaender, A.S., Goldbogen J.A., Calambokidis, J. & Southall, B.L. (In press) A multivariate mixed hidden Markov model for blue whale behavior and responses to sound exposure. Annals of Applied Statistics.

Goldbogen, J.A., Southall, B.L., DeRuiter, S.L., Calambokidis, J., Friedlaender, A.S., Hazen, E.L., Falcone, E.A., Schorr, G.S., Douglas, A., Moretti, D.J., Kyburg, C., McKenna, M.F. & Tyack, P.L. (2013) Blue whales respond to simulated mid-frequency military sonar. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 280(1765), 20130657. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0657

Harris, C.M., Sadykova, D., DeRuiter, S.L., Tyack, P.L., Miller, P., Kvadsheim, P., Lam, F.P. & Thomas, L. (2015). Dose response severity functions for acoustic disturbance in cetaceans using recurrent event survival analysis. Ecosphere, 6(11), 236

Goldbogen, J.A., Stimpert, A.K., DeRuiter, S.L., Calambokdis, J., Friedlaender, A.S., Schorr, G.S., Moretti, D.J., Tyack, P.L. & Southall, B. L. (2014) Using accelerometers to determine the calling behavior of tagged baleen whales. Journal of Experimental Biology, 21, 2449-55.

Harris, C.M., Thomas, L., Sadykova, D., DeRuiter, S.L., Tyack, P.L., Southall, B.L., Read, A.J. & Miller, P.J.O. (2016) The Challenges of Analyzing Behavioral Response Study Data: An Overview of the MOCHA (Multi-study OCean acoustics Human effects Analysis) Project. In: Popper, A. N. and Hawkins, A. eds. (2015). The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York.

Miller, P.J.O., Antunes, R.N., Wensveen, P.J., Samarra, F.I.P., Alves, A. C., Kvadsheim, P.H., Kleivane, L., Lam, F.-P.A., Ainsle, M.A., Tyack P.L. & Thomas, L. (2014) Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 135, 975.

Miller P.J.O., Kvadsheim, P.H., Lam, F.-P.A., Tyack, P.L., Curé, C., DeRuiter, S.L., Kleivane, L., Sivle, L.D., van IJsselmuide, S.P., Visser, F., Wensveen, P.J. & Hooker, S.K. (2015). First indications that northern bottlenose whales are highly sensitive to noise disturbance. Royal Society Open Science, 2, 140484.

Popov, V., Langrock, R., DeRuiter, S.L, Visser, F. (In press) An analysis of pilot whale vocalization activity using hidden Markov models. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

Quick, N.J., Scott-Hayward, L., Sadykova, D., Nowacek, D. & Read, A. (In press) Effects of a scientific echo sounder on the behavior of short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture.

Quick NJ, Isojunno S, Sadykova D, Bowers M, Nowacek D and Read A. (In press) Hidden Markov Models reveal complexity in the diving behavior of short-finned pilot whales. Scientific Reports.

Sivle, L.D., Kvadsheim, P.H., Curé, C., Isojunno, S., Wensveen, P.J., Lam, F.P.A., Visser, F., Kleivane, L., Tyack, P.L., Harris, C.M. & Miller, P.J.O. (2015) Severity of Expert-Identified Behavioral Responses of Humpback Whale, Minke Whale and Northern Bottlenose Whale to Naval Sonar. Aquatic Mammals. 41, 4, p. 469-502

Sivle, L.D., Wensveen, P. J., Kvadsheim, P. H., Lam, F-P. A., Visser, F., Curé, C., Harris, C. M., Tyack, P. L., & Miller, P. (In review) Naval sonar disrupts foraging in humpback whales. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 562, 211-220. doi: 10.3354/meps11969

Southall, B.L., Moretti, D.J., Abraham, B., Calambokidis, J., DeRuiter, S.L. & Tyack, P.L. (2012) Marine mammal behavioral response studies in southern California: Advances in technology and experimental methods. Marine Technology Society Journal, 46(4), 46-59.

Stimpert, A.K., DeRuiter, S.L., Southall, B.L., Moretti, D.J., Falcone, E.A., Goldbogen, J.A., Friedlaender, A.S., Schorr, G.S. & Calambokidis, J.A. (2014) Acoustic and foraging behavior of a tagged Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii) exposed to simulated sonar. Scientific Reports 4, Article number 7031. doi:10.1038/srep07031

Stimpert, A.K., Goldbogen, J.A., DeRuiter, S.L., Southall, B.L., Moretti, D.J., Falcone, E.A., Schorr, G.S., Friedlaender, A.S., Calambokidis, J. & Tyack, P.L. (2015) Sound production and associated behavior of tagged fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in the Southern California Bight. Animal Telemetry 3, 23.

Visser F., Miller P.J.O., Antunes R.N., Oudejans M.G., MacKenzie M.L., Aoki K., Lam F.P.A., Kvadsheim P.H., Huisman J. & Tyack, P.L. (2014) The social context of individual foraging behavior in long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). Behavior, 151, 1453-1477

Related Links

MOCHA Project Site
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University of St Andrews